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Two yerûshâlayim (Jerusalem) Part 1
Scripture For Today

Isaiah 65:18 NASB

17 For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; And the former things will not be remembered or come to mind.
18 But be glad and rejoice forever in what I create; For Behold, I create Jerusalem for rejoicing and her people for gladness. 

19 19 “I will also rejoice in Jerusalem and be glad in My people;
And there will no longer be heard in her
The voice of weeping and the sound of crying.
20 “No longer will there be in it an infant who lives but a few days,
Or an old man who does not live out his days;
For the youth will die at the age of one hundred
And the one who does not reach the age of one hundred
Will be thought accursed.

Isaiah 66:10-13 NASB  

10“Be joyful with Jerusalem and rejoice for her, all you who love her;
Be exceedingly glad with her, all you who mourn over her,
11 That you may nurse and be satisfied with her comforting breasts,
That you may suck and be delighted with her bountiful bosom.”
12 For thus says the Lord, “Behold, I extend peace to her like a river,
And the glory of the nations like an overflowing stream;
And you will be nursed, you will be carried on the hip and fondled on the knees.
13 “As one whom his mother comforts, so I will comfort you;
And you will be comforted in Jerusalem.”

In each of the mentions of Jerusalem in the above passages, the plural case is used in the Hebrew language, meaning more than one (two). The Jewish Rabbi's admit this use of Jerusalem is puzzling to them. Is there to be another Jerusalem other than the one in the land of Israel? The answer: There has to be, but before I prove that, notice these texts in Isaiah are eschatological (prophetic future) having to do with the millennial reign of Christ upon the earth. We know this because Isaiah 65:17-18 are in the context of a new heaven and a new earth. Actually the Hebrew word for new is chadash, which means to rebuild or replenish, not in the sense of something brand new. 

There is nothing evil about planet earth proper or the heavens proper, but the sin upon and within them. Satan's originate sin was in the heavens which corrupted the second and first heavens (God's throne is currently in the third heaven). His causing Adam and Eve to sin was on planet earth, which is part of the first heaven (the earth's atmosphere). Therefore, both the heavens and earth will need a washing or cleansing of the corruption caused by sin.

The question is when does this recreation take place - during the 1000-year reign (millennium) or after the millennium? It is my personal opinion the entire millennial will be a rebuilding program for planet earth because by the time the judgments of the seven-year tribulation and the Day of the Lord are over, the planet will be largely destroyed and the population greatly reduced (see Isaiah 24:3-6; 19-23 and notice the destruction takes place on the posttrib day of the Lord - Verse 23).

Back to the question of why two Jerusalem's; Jeremiah 19 is a metaphor about the destruction of old Jerusalem (The Broken Jar). 

Jeremiah 19:10-15 NASB

10 “Then you are break the jar in the sight of the men who accompany you 11 and say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord of hosts, “Just so will I break this people and this city, even as one breaks a potter’s vessel, which cannot again be repaired; and they will bury in Topheth because there is no other place for burial. 12 This is how I will treat this place and its inhabitants,” declares the Lord, “so as to make this city like Topheth. 13 The houses of Jerusalem and the houses of the kings of Judah will be defiled like the place Topheth, because of all the houses on whose rooftops they burned sacrifices to all the heavenly host and poured out drink offerings to other gods.”’”  14 Then Jeremiah came from Topheth, where the Lord had sent him to prophesy; and he stood in the court of the Lord’s house and said to all the people: 15 “Thus says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, ‘Behold, I am about to bring on this city and all its towns the entire calamity that I have declared against it, because they have stiffened their necks so as not to heed My words.’”

Topheth is mentioned only in the Old Testament and its root meaning is a place of burning (The Old Testaments equivalent to the Lake of Fire). It lies near the East Gate of Jerusalem (I have pictures of it that I took when I visited Israel in 1982). The idolatrous Kings of Judah burned their children there as sacrifices to Baal and Molech. On account of this, it became known as the place of slaughter and abominations.  In essence, God told Jeremiah that a day would come in which old Jerusalem will be destroyed and cannot be repaired. That of itself necessitates another Jerusalem and will it be a literal physical city or spiritual?  

Old Jerusalem is under a curse and contrary to what Evangelical Christians want to believe, God is not protecting that place in order to keep it from judgment and destruction. It will be destroyed as well as the land of Israel greatly damaged by an end-time war (See Isaiah 17 the whole chapter). In Revelation 11, God refers to Jerusalem as Sodom and Egypt not terms of endearment. He destroyed Sodom and mightily judged Egypt with many plagues. 

In Galatians 4 Paul spoke of two covenants - one as old Jerusalem in slavery because of its people seeking righteousness by the Torah (Law - the meaning of Mount Sinai) while the other Jerusalem is from above and free for all that are in Christ Jesus have been set free from the law of sin and death. There is no righteousness in the Torah for the Law enforces Sin not removes it. Only the blood of Jesus Christ removes the penalty of sin and one day the presence of sin. 

Galatians 4:24-26 NASB

24 This is allegorically speaking, for these women are two covenants: one proceeding from Mount Sinaibearing children who are to be slaves; she is Hagar. 25 Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. 26 But the Jerusalem above is free; she is our mother.

Both Isaiah and Revelation speak of a New Jerusalem:

Isaiah 62:1-2 NASB

1 For Zion's sake I will not keep silent, And for Jerusalem's sake I will not keep quiet, Until her righteousness goes forth like a brightness, And her salvation like a torch that is burning. 2 The nations will see your righteousness, And all the kings your glory; And you will be called by a NEW NAME, which the mouth of the Lord will designate. 

Revelation 3:12 NASB

12 He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of My God and he will not go out from it anymore; and I will write on him the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the NEW JERUSALEM, which comes down out of heaven from My God and My new name. 

Revelation 3:12 is a reference to Isaiah 62:2. 

So if old Jerusalem is going to be utterly destroyed where will the Lord's throne be on the earth during his millennial reign?  I have read that some believe it will be in the vicinity of Shiloh where the Ark of the Covenant was in the Tabernacle before Solomon's temple was built. 

In Part 2, I will discuss the New Jerusalem in more detail.